Life Cycle and Description: Florida betony (Stachys floridana) is a fast-spreading nuisance of lawns and landscaped beds. It grows in full sun to partial shade and tolerates a wide variety of soil conditions ranging from wet to dry. Florida betony is often called “rattlesnake weed” because it produces white, segmented tubers that resemble a rattlesnake’s tail.
This cool-season perennial weed emerges from seeds and tubers during the cool, moist months of fall. Throughout the winter months, the plants grow and spread rapidly, often reaching heights of less than 2 feet. Florida betony has square stems and lance-shaped leaves with slightly toothed or serrated edges arranged oppositely on the stems. From late spring to early summer the weeds bear white to pink trumpet-shaped flowers occurring in whorls of three to nine in the leaf axils (the upper angle formed where the leaf joins the stem). In response to the onset of high summer temperatures or cold winter temperatures, Florida betony growth stops and the plant becomes nearly dormant. Florida betony reproduces primarily from tubes but also from seeds and rhizomes.